Historia

Historia

Trótula de Salerno:

La primera doctora en la primera Escuela de Medicina

Trótula de Salerno (1090-1160) también conocida como Trótula di Ruggiero fue primero estudiantes y luego profesora de la Escuela Médica Salernitana, el primer centro médico sin conexión con la Iglesia y considerado por algunos autores como la primera universidad europea.

Trótula y “las damas de Salerno” tuvieron un rol trascendental en el cambio en la Edad Media que marcó el fin del oscurantismo en Europa. Tanto en la tradición popular como en los círculos médicos, las “damas de Salerno” tenían fama como médicas y estudiosas, y entre ellas destacaba Trótula.

Salerno y la medicina medieval

Trótula pertenecía a una familia adinerada. Cuando ella era joven, la Alta Edad Media estaba en su auge, el urbanismo avanzaba y las Cruzadas estaban en su apogeo. Nuevas universidades reemplazaron a los antiguos monasterios como centros de enseñanza. Salerno fue la primera escuela médica no regida por religiosos y estaba abierta a árabes y judíos lográndose así un enriquecimiento cultural especial. También fue pionera en admitir mujeres. Su ubicación estratégica en el Mediterráneo permitió fusionar el conocimiento greco- romano con la tradición islámica y judía. Salerno era el lugar para ser visto; su escuela de Medicina se convirtió en la más prestigiosa del siglo XI en Europa.

El rol de la mujer

En la Edad Media, el ejercicio de la medicina estaba prohibido para la mujer salvo la práctica de la obstetricia y los cuidados al niño en sus primeros meses, que estaban casi exclusivamente, en manos femeninas. En un Salerno abierto a la vocación médica femenina, pronto surgirán los nombres de cinco mujeres expertas en el arte de curar: Trótula, Salernitana, Constanza y Calenda, alemanas, Rebeca Guarna, judía y Abella, musulmana, que simbolizan la conjunción de los saberes de judíos, árabes y cristianos.

Entre todas ellas destacaría Trótula, que ocuparía un lugar importante en el campo de la ginecología y obstetricia.

La Escuela de Salerno brindó a la mujer con vocación médica dos importantes oportunidades:

• Ser el primer centro que permitió el libre acceso de la mujer a la formación médica y a su titulación.

• No limitar su campo de acción a las enfermedades de la mujer y el cuidado de los lactantes, sino ampliarla al ejercicio de la medicina general.

Su obra

Sus libros se centran en los problemas médicos de las mujeres. Escribió el más célebre tratado de Obstetricia y Ginecología de la Edad Media conocido como Trótula Mayor. Este consta de sesenta capítulos. Trata sobre la menstruación, la concepción, el embarazo, el parto, el control de la natalidad, además de diversas enfermedades ginecológicas y de otro tipo, así como de sus remedios. Se usó como texto de medicina hasta el siglo XVI.

Sus teorías médicas fueron increíblemente avanzadas. Sobre las causas y tratamientos de la infertilidad señaló que: “es igualmente frecuente que la concepción se vea impedida por un defecto del hombre como de la mujer”.

Trótula impuso un pensamiento que iba contra la creencia religiosa de aquella época, que dictaba que el dolor de la mujer en el parto y otros aspectos de la vida se debían al rol de Eva en el pecado original. Sus escritos

reflejaron ideas muy avanzadas para su tiempo: un ejemplo es su apoyo a que se suministrasen opiáceos a las mujeres durante el parto para mitigar el dolor, una práctica que entonces era perseguida por las autoridades.

Describe también diversas técnicas quirúrgicas, postula brindar una eficaz protección perineal y hace descripciones de avanzada sobre las episiotomías. Sus tratados pediátricos dan normas sobre los lactantes y respecto al cuidado del niño en sus primeros meses de vida.

Ella creía en una evaluación amplia de los pacientes y no solo centrada en los síntomas llamativos, poniendo énfasis en una evaluación integral. Escribió un segundo tratado sobre el cuidado de la piel, la higiene y la cosmética (Trótula menor) . Recomienda también a las mujeres de su época cuidar de la higiene diaria, ejercicio físico regular, masajes con aceites y una dieta equilibrada y saludable. Y completa estas recomendaciones con unas simples y curiosas recetas de cosmética femenina:

• Una crema para eliminar las arrugas, la fórmula de un lápiz de labios en la que utiliza la miel, el jugo de remolachas, la calabaza y agua de rosas.

• Para conservar sana y blanca la dentadura recomienda limpiarlos con una infusión caliente de corteza de nogal.

• Y como iba a olvidarse de los cuidados del cabello. Trótula dará opción a las damas salernitanas a lucir una deslumbrante cabellera rubio platino o un discreto color castaño.

En su obra aún hoy se siguen encontrando elementos novedosos. Su fama fue tal que sus libros fueron copiados y vueltos a copiar por varios siglos. Con el descubrimiento de la imprenta por Gutenberg, la obra de Trótula es impresa por vez primera, en Estrasburgo, en el año 1554.

Las enseñanzas ginecológicas de Trótula de Salerno serían seguidas durante muchos años en toda Europa, convirtiéndola en la mujer de mayor prestigio en Obstetricia y Ginecología de la Edad Media. A pesar de las corrientes misóginas en la historia, el rol de Trótula es importante y poderoso, el de una mujer y médico con carisma, inteligencia y dotes especiales de maestra e innovadora.

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